بررسی برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیک سه گونه چمن در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی شهرکرد

4 عضو هیات علمی گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

یکی از چالش‌های اصلی در مدیریت چمن، محدودیت منابع آب جهت آبیاری است.استفاده از گونه­ها و ارقام مقاوم به خشکی، مهم­ترین ابزار در کاهش میزان آب مورد استفاده در زمین­های چمن­کاری شده است.این پژوهش به­منظور بررسی برخی پاسخ­های مورفولوژیک شاخساره و ریشه چمن­های آگروپایرون دزرتوروم (Agropyron desertorum Fischer)، پوآ پراتنسیس (Poa pratensis L.) رقم"باریمپالا" و بروموس اینرمیس (Bromus inermis Leyss) به قطع آبیاری انجام شد. بذرهای چمن در گلدان‌های استوانه‌ایی در فضای آزاد کشت شدند و آبیاری به نحوی انجام شد که آب به آرامی از انتهای زهکش گلدان خارج شود. پس از استقرار کامل گیاهان، آبیاری قطع شد تا بیشتر گیاهان به حدود 80 درصد خشکیدگی برسند. پس از آن آبیاری مجدد انجام شد. با قطع کامل آبیاری به ترتیب چمن‌های بروموس اینرمیس، پوآ پراتنسیس و آگروپایرون دزرتوروم به حدود 80 درصد خشکیدگی رسیدند. پس از انجام آبیاری مجدد درصد خشکیدگی ابتدا در آگروپایرون دزرتوروم و سپس در پوآ پراتنسیس کاهش یافت و پس از مدتی مشابه گیاهان شاهد شدند، هر چند آبیاری مجدد اثری روی بروموس اینرمیس نداشت و این گونه چمن به خشکیدگی کامل رسید. تنش خشکی ارتفاع رشد و ماده خشک حاصل از سربرداری را کاهش داد. میزان این کاهش در آگروپایرون دزرتوروم کم‌تر از دو گونه دیگر بود. کیفیت چمن نیز در اثر تنش خشکی کاهش یافت، اما کاهش کیفیت در آگروپایرون دزرتوروم کندتر از دو گونه دیگر بود. نتایج بررسی خصوصیات ریشه نشان داد که آگروپایرون دزرتوروم در مقایسه با دو گونه دیگر چمن از طول و وزن خشک ریشه بیشتری برخوردار بود. بروموس اینرمیس و پوآ پراتنسیس اختلاف معنی­داری در این دو صفت نداشتند. طول ریشه در گیاهان با آبیاری مناسب به طور معنی­داری بیش از گیاهان در معرض تنش خشکی بود. در آگروپایرون دزتوروم و پوآ پراتنسیس نسبت ریشه به شاخساره در گیاهان تحت تنش بیش از گیاهان با آبیاری مناسب بود، درحالی­که در بروموس اینرمیس نسبت ریشه به شاخساره در این دو تیمار اختلاف معنی­داری را با یکدیگر نشان نداد.

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